WW1 history around the corner

Once again I was searching through old digitized Swedish-American Newspapers, and stumbled over a small note, who said, in my perspective, interesting facts. I saw the name of my village, where I live today.

The small text informed me about a father who was grieved his lost son, who was a soldier in the 122nd Bayerische Infanterie Regemente, and the father had just received info that his son fell, but it didnt tell any date. You find the small note below, and beneath it I have translated it into english.

I made two pictures, one with the text and one with the text but also including the date from The newspaper, The Texas Post from early January, and I assume his son fell in 1917.

Jönköping. Swedish Iron Cross Knight dead in the war. The 2nd Lt in the 122nd Bavarian Infantry Regiment, Iron Cross Knight B. J. W. Swahn, has according to a message to his father in Smålands Taberg died in a war hospital in Schwaben, 29 years old.”

It is always interesting to find this information in a American Newspaper from Texas, from over 100 years ago. I understand now, from reading a lot of those newspapers, that it was important for the Swedish Emigrants in North America to read about the faith of their countrymen.

I assume that B J W Swahn died in 1917, and he should then be born around 1888. The thing I know is that his father probably also has the surname “Swahn”.

I first search in the archive from Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge, and I search for “Swahn”. You can see the result below.

It must be him. 1888 and Jönköping is correct, and also that he died in 1917 is also correct. Now I have date of birth.

I go into the Swedish Archive portal “Arkiv Digital” and search for Wilhelm Swahn, born September 24, 1888. And there he is, with all his family. B. J. W. Swahn becomes Bror Jonas Wilhelm Svahn, born in Jönköping, Sweden, and raised by his mother, with the quite unusual name Aqvilina, Sandberg as Surname, and his father Johan Wilhelm Swahn.

Bror´s father is a military, from Jönköping Regiment, I 12, which later on together with Kalmar Regiment becomes Norra Smålands Regemente I 12, in 1927, my regiment, where I started my career.

Bror does his conscript, probably at the same regiment as his father, but later on becomes a sergeant, today the level of OR7, up North in Sweden, at Norrlands Artillery Regiment, A4, before he goes down south again.

On the map below you can see some of the places where he lived with his family, after has been born in Jönköping city.

You will find, underlined in red, some places that are mentioned in the church books, and also the small place called Sjötorp, with a map from just North-West of the word Taberg on the larger map, and how a house, that is called Sjötorp today, looks like. It can be in the same plot. I live in the area called “Gärdet” on the map.

I don’t find a lot of info from Bror and his history in the German Imperial Army, but I have some facts that says that he went to North America in 1910, but I haven’t found any information about when he went back again. I assume he did.

I have tried to find his regiment, to which Division he belonged, and it is highly likely that he belonged to the 122nd Infantry Regiment from Wurttemberg, in the 243 Infantry Division. There is a small text below from that regiment history, from 1917.

Bror Jonas Wilhelm Swahn is buried in Germany, in Schwaben region, in the cemetery of Kriegsgräberstätte in Schwäbisch Gmünd-Leonhardsfriedhof. May Bror rest in peace, I will remember him.

I will in february 2022 have a lecture in my local community, and I will of course mention him and, so far, three other individuals from the parish, who fought in the Great War, on the American side, but those other three survived. Maybe they met eachother? Who will ever know …

In this case I will not register Bror in my database, as he is not within the criterias, but nevertheless I will think about him and his family when I walk around in the area next time. Imagine, such interesting history, just around the corner.

Gems in the hunt of history

Sometimes I find great pieces of Swedish history, which is out there online, well worth to be announced on other forums.

Like this little story about two Swedes, who left Sweden and went out west in the world, to another continent, to search for other qualities in life.

I am following up a small note in a digital magazine, which tells me about the death of Ernest Julius Alfred Erickson, who fell in the Great War in the Meuse-Argonne offensive, when he fought for 361st Infantry Regiment, 91st Division in American Expeditionary Forces.

Ernest is in this case buried back home in the United States, and not at the Western Front, but I think it is nice anyway to mention him and his family within my project, even if I dont put him in my database, as he falls outside my criterias of the project.

Ernest was born in Torpshammar parish, Ånge, Sundsvall, Sweden, in January 9th, 1889 and were raised together with his siblings by his mother Britta Kristina Olofsdotter and his father Anders Alfred Ersson.

Below I will present the text that I found on the web page findagrave.com and the photos I found are in the credit of Mark Erickson and Brian Backes. I find them great as they are in colour, and are supposed to show Ernest and his brother Frank, which I will describe later on further down.

The family description can be viewed in a larger version through this link.

The text below are assumed to be written by Mark Erickson:

In early 1917 my grandfather Frank Severin Erickson and his older brother Ernest Julius Erickson had gone out west by train from North Dakota together seeking adventure and warmer climates. Also on their minds was buying some land along the west coast. Deep into Winter when they arrived on their first stop at Astoria, they were surprised how cold it could get in Oregon. Over the next months they considered how the Great Northwest was similar to where they had come from in Dakota.

Frank and Ernest Julius were working by mid Summer as deputies on the Oregon Railroad out of La Grande. Both had joined the army in June and had full intention of becoming members of the American Expeditionary Force that was being formed at hundreds of army camps all over the states.

An excerpt from Ernest Julius’s diary dated Tuesday, June 5th, 1917 goes simply:

Went and signed up for Uncle Sam today, so if he wants me, I’m ready to go.”

Ernest Julius would be first to enter service in late 1917 and train at Camp Lewis near Tacoma, Washington. He shipped out to England from Brooklyn Harbor on July 6th, 1918 and ported in Liverpool. By September of 1918 Ernest would find himself in the Argonne Forest in France serving with the 361st Infantry.

By late September of 1917 Frank and Ernest Julius went deer hunting up near Mt. Baldy, Oregon. They camped and cooked outdoors and enjoyed the time together up in the woods.

My uncle Ernest Julius Erickson September 25th, 1917 standing in front of his horse with a deer packed aboard and rifle in hand after a successful deer hunting week up in Mt. Baldy, Oregon.

By the end of 1918, with Ernest Julius already at Camp Lewis training, Frank would move to Tacoma and await his induction into the AEF. Soon enough he would be at Camp Lewis preparing for combat duty.

On August 8th, 1918 Frank like his brother would ship out of Brooklyn Harbor heading to England. In September he along with other members of his Company H of the 308th Infantry would be preparing to take part in the Meuse Argonne Offensive. An odd twist of fate was in store for Frank by early October. On October 2nd Frank along with roughly 553 men of the 77th Division led by Major Charles White Whittlesey launched an attack into the Argonne Forest, with the incorrect knowledge that French forces were supporting their left flank and that two American units including the 92nd Infantry Division were supporting their right. With this all in collapse, the 77th was isolated by German forces. Frank would serve during this time as a runner rifleman for Captain William J. Cullen.

Fortunately Frank would become a surviving member of the Lost Battalion when 194 men would escape through a pocket in the Argonne. The 356 remaining men were either killed, went missing in action or were captured by the Germans.

The quality of photographs unlike the one below taken by Frank and Ernest Julius in September of 1917 are superb with two examples here:

The photo posted here along with others had quite a life. One hundred years old and they have gone through the mill as Frank would say. Forty years in a photo album and then in 1952 the Missouri River, North Dakota Flood hit Bismarck and my grandparents house was waist high in Missouri water. They told me of items floating out the open windows and things lost or damaged.

It is quite fortunate that these photographs even exist. This and other similar images taken on September 25th, 1917 up in Oregon all faded and water damaged, but still stunning and in my opinion true Cowboy gems.”

So interesting to also read about Ernest brother Frank, who fought in Company H, 308 Inf Regt, 77th Div, and survived the fights in the Argonne Wood, in the battalion which later was called “The lost battalion”

In the text above Ernest and his brother Frank are mentioned, and their real names are Ernst Julius Alfred Ersson and Frans Gustav Severin Ersson. The family left Sweden in March 30, 1903 from the farm in Sweden called Klöstre, in Torpshammar parish, Ånge, Sundsvall, Sweden.

I will probably find more facts about those Swedes who were brought back to their new home area in the US, after they fell at The Western Front, and this facts brings very much knowledge to me, when it comes to our Swedish Emigration history, which I carry very close to my heart.

May Ernest and his family rest in peace. We will remember them.

Tracing the truth

This is one of my most exiting finds so far in my research. Not in any great or sensational way, but more in the way how I tried to find all the clues to really fit to all individuals, and it wasn’t easy, but it is highly likely that I have found all the correct facts to say, that this individual actually was born in Sweden.

I wonder sometimes, is it worth all the time I put into this, does anyone bother, if I have found the correct info or not, but I always end up in my head, that it is important to make the individual more alive, with background and everything, and that is the main reason I do this. It is still many quiestions left in this story, but I will try to give you the picture I have in my head when I put all the facts together.

I found a small article in a digitized Swedish-American newspaper from 1916, that says the following text in Swedish. (see photo) I have also translated it to English below the photo.

“A Swede has fallen in the War.

Erik Lind in Ishpeming, Michigan, received one day, last week, a telegram from Ottawa, Ontario, that his son Edward has fallen at the Western Front, October 8th, (1916). he belonged to a regiment from Canada. He was born in Huså, Koll (Kall) parish, Jämtland, 34 years ago”

OK. I have the father’s name, the son’s name, the date he fell, and where the son was born. Easy, I thought, I will probably find him right away … No. It wasn’t easy at all. I was on my way to give up, the strings were really loose, but I decided to try.

I searched for Edward Lind, dead October 8th, 1916, but no hit in several archives. I assumed he was born in about 1882 (1916-34), but still no hit. Even if made a span between 1880-1885 I didn’t find him.

Did he had another surname? Maybe Eriksson, after his father Erik? No, no hit.

I decided to search for his father Erik Lind, who probably lived in the actual parish Koll, in Huså, Jämtland. I started with Ancestry.

I find a family from the United States Federal Census from 1910, Eric P Lind, Marie and Edward, and some other siblings. OK, maybe I have found something?

I decide to search in Swedish archives after Erik Lind and there are a lot of them, but after a about an hour I find something interesting. An Erik Person Lind with wife Märit Eriksdotter. It actually says Eric P Lind in the Census, and could Märit be Marie? There is no Edward in the Swedish Archive, though. Both Eric, Marie and Edward is stated to be born in Sweden, but Edward is more fluent in English, according to the document. Was he a small child when he emigrated? Could so be …

I am trying to find Edward in Kall parish, and I search through a lot of combinations, with different date of birth, but no success. I decide to try again with Ancestry and also with CWGC, to look for an Edward who died October 8th, 1916. No luck in CWGC with that combination, but with Ancestry I get a hit on a specific Edward Lynn, who actually died October 8th. Could Lynn be Lind? Really interesting! But there are a lot of Edward Lynn, but I find only one who died the date mentioned.

I recognize Ishpeming, Michigan, He states that he is born December 17, 1884, not in 1882, that we had from the article in the newspaper, and also that he is born in USA, not in Sweden. He has a Next of Kin though, who he calls E. Lynn. Could it be Eric Lind? The father?

I look more into the documents from the Canadian archives as I now have his regimental number, 9689, and I also find E Lynn in CWGC archive, that states the date of death, and also the unit he fought for, 3rd Infantry battalion, CEF.

And here I find some more interesting documents, that connects info that we have from earlier documents. Remember Eric P Lind and Marie? We also have Ishpeming, Michigan.

OK. Most likely I have connected an Edward, who is stated to be born in Sweden according to the census, and also we find the same names Eric and Marie in the Canadian documents, but still no evidence that we have found the correct Edward, because different place of birth is mentioned in the two documents.

I decide to try to look further in Ancestry, with combinations of all the facts that I have. Here I spend some more hours. Suddenly I find something interesting.

I find Per Edward, born in Sweden December 17, 1883. Hm. Same date as in the Canadian documents, but another year, that could of course be normal as that have happened before, especially when soldiers have emigrated in early years.

And I also find some more info, who connects a lot of other facts from earlier. In the document from the Swedish church book I also see the name of the parents to Per Edward. Erik Lind and Märit Ersdotter. Also Kall, Huså and Jämtland is mentioned. I dont think I can come closer at this stage. This must be them.

I also find the document from the church book, that I found in the earlier Swedish archive, Arkiv Digital.

This document says that Eric Person Lind is going to North America in July 1883, And his wife Märit moves over in November 1886.

I think it is like this. Edward Is not born when his father leaves for North America, he is born i Sweden, as we also find in the Census document. But when I read the explaining text to the census it says that Edward emigrated to North America in 1885. Maybe that year is wrong, or just estimated. In this case I cant exlain this.

Edward Lynn is probably Per Edward Lind, a lot of facts points in that direction. I dont say I am 100% sure, but most likely I have found the correct individual.

Edward Lynn is buried at Adanac Military Cemetery, Somme region, in France, after has been killed in action October 8, 1916.

I will also put some prints from the diary of 3rd Infantry battalion, CEF, which explains in which region he was when he was killed. I will also put some snippets from the trench maps.

The fight which Edward participated in was cruel. From the 14 officers and the 481 Other ranks who started this specific battle, only 1 officer and 85 Other ranks were left when the day was over.

Please feel free to point me in another direction if you find some info above, that may be wrong, but I will put him in my database as soldier #409 until anything else comes up.

May Edward rest in peace. We will remember them.

One letter too late

The letter from the Oskar reached Carl a couple of months too late. The letters had many questions and wishes to meet again, but also some information about the situation back home in Sweden.

I find out that a soldier named Carl E Anderson in killed in action, but it was a bit of detective work again to really find out who he was and where he came from. Not much information to work with, and the names, Carl and Anderson, are among the most common names in Sweden, even today. But I found him, and also some other interesting facts.

In these times we know quite fast what is happening around the globe, within hours, sometimes within minutes. We have too much information sometimes. Imagine how it would be to not know exactly what is going on in the world all the time?

I am so impressed about the organisation when it comes to handle letters and post during the Great War. They took care of so much letters from the soldiers, we almost can’t imagine. I have read somewhere that the British post managed 11 bags of mail, daily, during a period in the war. Amazing.

I can order something today on internet, but I know I will have to wait almost a week nowadays, before I receive it. I know a friend who posted a package with a gps tracker, just to see where it went, before it came to the receiver, and he could follow the package heading to the central terminals in the country, quite far away, before it went back again after a couple of days, to the receiver, who just lived around 20 kilometers away.

Probably it took some time before the letters came to the correct receiver, and also it was probably a lot of letters and cards that never came through.

This was the case when it comes to the letter from Oskar, who he sent to Carl, who he thought was in North America, in February 23, 1919. He did not know that Carl actually was killed October 14th, 1918, in fights near Exermont in France, when he fought for the 167th Infantry Regiment, 42nd Division in American Expeditionary Forces.

I was not sure if I had found the correct Carl E Anderson, but after som research from different dates of birth and dates of death that was presented in different archives, I am now pretty sure that I have found the correct soldier.

He is, in some documents, stated to be born in August 25, 1893, and also that he he was killed both the 13th and 15th of October. The Casualty card above says 14th of October, and that is most likely the correct date. Below you will fins some documents from the Swedish church book that also says that he was born August 29th, 1893, which I also find in the draft from 1917.

Carl is born in Lundby parish, in Gothenburg, Sweden, 1893, as Carl Edvin Anderson Frimodig. I can read from the church books that his brother Oskar is mentioned as Oskar Sigfrid, and I also find the name on the envelope of the letter, and also in the letter, where he signed it with the name Sigfrid. From the church books I have not found any date about when Carl is leaving Sweden but he is noted “absent” in 1914-1917. In the letter Oskar also mention the other brother, Bror Olof Waldemar, with the name Olof.

This was one of the leads to, that I probably have found the right Carl. Below you will find some pictures from the letter. The letter is written in Swedish. In the letter Carl is called Calle, a very common way of calling people who has the name Carl, even today. Oskar is like Carl also a sailor. I think that is the way Carl came to North America, he probably went there with the ship he worked on, because I cant find other travel documents.

Above you can see the place, Sörgården, Krokslätt, and that is also mentioned in one of the church books, below, as a place where they lived in one period.

Some text from the letter that I translated:

“Thank you so much for your letter, is it good to hear that you are alive …” When Oscar is writing this letter, Carl is already dead, and buried at the initial burial site near Exermont, Ardennes, France.

“… You haven’t heard anything from Hammarström, I wrote them as well to ask them where you were, but I did not hear anything from them, probably they moved from the address where they lived then. As you know I came to New York 1916, in the autumn, when you were supposed to meet me, but you had travelled up to Buffalo, I wrote a card to you, but you did not answer as you did not receive it, I believe …”

“… It was meant that I would have been travelling to you, I had brought up a lot of cash, and if I had met you I thought I could have stayed by you, I was walking around for 4 days, but I had to go on the ship again as I did not meet you …”

“… It is quite bad here now (in Sweden) so you have to send home some dollars, that can be good to have when you are coming home again …”

“… I can tell you that I will try to get on a boat this summer, as it should be really fun to see you again!”

” … If you think you will come over this upcoming summer, just write us a letter in advance, so we know that you are coming.”

The letter itself is really interesting, and I found it in the US archive together with some other documents below, that tells us when Carl was moved from his first burial to The Meuse Argonne American cemetery, which is his final resting place today.

I hope that I one day can visit the place of Carl’s final resting place, and also the first burial site that he was in, after he fell that day, during the Meuse Argonne offensive, togehter with his unit. The coordinates are mentioned on the casualty card.

The story above, and especially the letter, moved me a bit, and I so wonder how it felt for Oskar to finally be told that his brother actually died before he wrote that letter. Below you will find some notes from the Swedish death book and also a photo of his headstone.

May carl rest in peace.

Recapture

Looking back to the long weekend I spent in Belgium recently makes me happy, even if it from one perspective was really heavy, but these moments is luckily small in comparison with those moments I had when it comes to the people I met.

I am so grateful to have found new contacts during my journey in the history world, connected to my research.

The flight in itself was a disaster, but brought some good, when I could see more than I had planned, as I stayed one more day in the region. Below you will find some highlights during my research trip.

Before I went I planned to continue to visit some of the Belgian sites and cemeteries, one of these was new, and I had to take photos of their headstones.

Here I especially want to mention the great Twitter companion with a white cat as her profile picture, Danielle Roubroeks, who, the latest years, has joined me on my trips at the battlefield. It is great to have her company, she knows so much, and it is nice to exchange knowledge, both during the lunches at Hooge Crater Museum restaurant, and at the cemeteries, she has been “everywhere” and you can follow her work at her homepage here.

We met up on friday at the Flanders Field American Cemetery, which really surprised me with its very beautiful cemetery, chapel and visitor center. It is well worth a visit. I left the place with both photos of the headstones from the four Swedes that have their last rest there, but also with info that will lead me further in my hunt for more information about those Swedes. Thank you for the great company, Danielle!

Just to calm down anyone who thinks that I have put stickers on the stones, I say now that it is only small fabric flags, which are kept up by the moist on the headstones. Now we have sorted that out.

After the visit at Flanders Field American Cemetery we continued to some of the cemeteries where other Swedes are buried, such as Belgian Battery Corner Cemetery, to visit Swedish born soldier Gust Hallstrom, one of only seven Canadians at the cemetery, who died for the Canadian Labour Corps.

The trip went further to Dozinghem Military Cemetery, which is a really huge cemetery, and this day it was a lot of water still inside, and made the grass really muddy, probably from the great rain the day before. In the cemetery we visited Eric Ostberg, 29th Canadian Infantry Battalion. May Eric rest in peace.

The trip went on to Hooge Crater Museum restaurant, to have some of their eminent toasts with a suitable beer to that. Great as always. After the lunch we once again visited the place where Bertil A Lindh is buried, who fell just south of the cemetery, near the Bluff, when he was fighting for the 13th Canadian Infantry Battalion.

We travelled further in to the town of Ypres, where I have found one more Swede at the walls of the Menin Gate Memorial, William Eastland, who fought for the 11th Canadian Machine Gun Corps. William has no known grave.

On the rampart of the city wall, there is also right now a installation from the artist Jan Fieuw, Faces of war, with 139 faces carved into old railway sleepers. A installation that really makes you think about the individuals who once where involved in building the railways during the war.

We ended the tour that day with a nice beer at St. Arnoldus, City of Ypres, as usual, when we meet up at the battlefields in the Salient.

The rest of the Friday evening I spent with good friends from the region, which is always great, with good food and drinks (Belgian Beer, of course!)

On the day after, saturday, I had some vague plans, but decided to visit two of the woods that Paul Reed has talked about in his great Podcast, Old Front Line, which you can find where you find podcasts.

First stop, Plogsteert Woods, just around 20 minutes straight south of Ypres. I just say, wow … just follow the trail down south from the parking at the so called Christmas Truce monument, and head into the woods. Totally alone in there, totally quiet, when I visited the cemeteries in the area. Well worth a visit.

These cemeteries really made an impression on me.

I walked back to my car and headed for Polygon Wood up in the Zonnebeke area, and parked at the parking near Polygon Wood Cemetery. I walked the path through Polygon Wood Cemetery, and moved further into Buttes New British cemetery and ended up with visiting the bunkers inside the polygon Wood. So nice to walk these paths, almost alone this saturday afternoon.

I can really recommend a lunch at Johans restaurant, De Dreve, just 1000 m from the parking at Polygon Wood. Nice lunch and a visit upstairs in his small museum in the attic.

On saturday evening I had a meeting at 7 pm at the Ypra Inn, the pub near the monument of Menin Gate, to meet up with another Twitter contact, through his wife, Sara. I met hers Pete Smith right on time, what a nice guy! Amazing contact for further explorations at the French part of the battlefield, as they live in Flers.

It was not planned but we also met up with the two amazing ladies from Great War Group, Alexandra and Bethany, to together join the Last Post ceremony, which always is nice to attend to. After the ceremony we ended up at The Kleine Stadthuis for a good, warm Flemish Stew. What an evening it turned out to be!

On sunday I continue to visit another soldiers grave, who fought on the German side during the war. I went in to a completely empty cemetery, a very special feeling, to commemorate Markus Grundberg, who fell in battle April 13th, 1918. May he rest in peace.

As I got an extra day on monday, I decided to go to the soldier Karl Eskil Stromwall, who is buried at the Lijssenthoek Military Cemetery near Poperinge, west of Ypres. It was a beatiful morning, and for me he is a special soldier as he fought in a british unit, Leicestershire Regiment, and only 19 years old, died of wounds after a gunshot in his head, the clerk in London, who was born in Sweden, and ended up here. May Karl rest in peace.

What a great little trip, made me really warm in my heart after great moments, and this only makes me more eager to soon book my next trip to the battlefields in Flanders and in France.

I hope you will join me.

Swedes in the Ypres-Lys and Scheldt River Offensive 1918

During my upcoming trip to Belgium I will visit the Ypres Salient again, I think it will be the 43rd time, but who is counting …?

During my latest trips, which have been during my research period, November 2019 to todays date, I have trying to document the terrain of those places where I beleive that the soldiers in my research have fallen during the battles and offensives at the Western Front.

This time, during November 4th to November 7th, I will mainly visit the Flanders Field American Cemetery and commemorate four of those Swedes that I have in my database, and are buried there. I will also try to walk in their footsteps by visiting the area and terrain of the offensives in which they participated in. It will be really great, and I hope I will learn even more about that part of the front and about those who fought for the American units in that sector.

The four individuals are:

  • 1208247 Pvt Charles O Lind, 53rd Brigade, 106 Inf Regt, 27th Div, AEF.
  • 1208441 Cpl Ringius Williams, 53rd Brigade, 106th inf Regt, 27th Div, AEF
  • 3333873 Pvt Axel B Johnson, 74th Brigade, 148th Inf Regt, 37th Div, AEF
  • 2286286 Pvt Axel T Rydell, 181st Brigade, 362nd Inf Regt, 91st Div, AEF

Charles, Karl Olof, who was born in Sala, Sweden, in 1894, went over to US at a very young age, he went over with his family already in 1895. Ringius, who was born in Ronneby, Sweden, left Sweden much later, in 1910, and probably they met eachother first, when they joined the Army. There is quite a distant between Sala, in the area North West of Stockholm, and Ronneby, in the southern part of Sweden.

Both Charles and Ringius lived in Brooklyn, New York, with their families, and it would be very interesting to know if the families knew eachother, but right now there is no information about that.

When it comes to Axel B Johnson he was born in Jönköping county (My own county), Sweden, in 1892. He left Sweden for US in 1912, and settled down in Roseburg, Minnesota. Axel T Rydell was born not so far away from Axel B, in Kronoberg county, and is noted to be absent in Swedish church books around 1909, and he fills in his declaration of intention in Montana, but he is drafted in the June 5th draft 1917, in Seattle, Washington.

I find that Charles O Lind and Ringius Williams are both fighting in the same unit. They belonged both to the 106th Inf Regt, and the same Company, Company I.

Charles was killed in action August 31st and Ringius was killed three days later, September 2nd.

They participated both in the Ypres-Lys offensive and in the unit diary from the 27th Division, American Expeditionary Forces, (AEF) we find the following text:

On July 3rd, the division proceeded to Belgium under the British 2nd
Army, where for further training units were brigaded with troops of the British 19th Corps in the Dickebush Lake and Scherpenberg sectors southwest of Ypres from July 9 to August 23, 1918. On August 23rd it relieved the British 6th Division in Line southwest of Ypres, and participated in the Ypres-Lys Offensive from August 31st to September 2nd, 1918, in the battle before Mt. Kemmel. On September 3rd, it was withdrawn from the line, and proceeded to the Beauquesne Area, near Beauval

We know from above that Axel B Johnson belonged to the 37th Division, AEF, and Axel T Rydell belonged to the 91st Division, AEF.

From the American Battle Monuments Commission education material, we find the following text:

“The United States 37th and 91st Divisions arrived in mid-October to reinforce a further thrust across the Scheldt River south of Ghent. This crossing was successful, and the advance continued until Armistice Day”

I choose to put in pictures from the diary, from the 37th Division who says as follows:

We can also see the maps from the area where the 37th Division were in November 1st, when Axel B Johnson was killed in action.

Axel T Rydell was fighting with the 91st Div, AEF and the diary from the unit says as follows:

We can on the map below see in which area Axel T Rydell was, when he was killed in action on October 31st, 1918.

All four soldiers are now finally buried in the Flanders Field American cemetery in Belgium, and I will soon visit all four of them, at the burial site. During November 5th and 6th I will visit the areas were they fell, and I will build up my material with photos and text for my future product from my ongoing research. As you may know I will try to make some kind of guide books where those who want, can follow in the footsteps of those Swedish born soldiers who fought and fell at the Western Front in the Great War.

May they rest in peace.

The Private who became an officer

This evening I am searching in some other archives than usual, and I came across one interesting document about a Swedish 2.Lt, who seems to have been killed in action in the Meuse Argonne Offensive in 1918. It turned out to be an interesting story.

The Swedish born soldier Nils Johan Holm, stated as Nils Holm in the documents from the American Expeditionary Forces, was born in Harg parish in Östhammar, Stockholm, Sweden, and in his younger years he was raised by his parents Sofia Lovisa Traneus and Carl Robert Holm.

But when looking into the Swedish church books it looks like his parents went over to North America in 1898, leaving Nils Johan and his brother Karl Ludvig in Sweden by their mother’s parents, Gustaf Fredrik Traneus and his wife Katarina Karolina Lundin.

I also find in the church book a vague note about that Nils is leaving Sweden for North America in 1907, at an age of 16, and I can later on confirm that through documents about his emigration. It also looks like the family is reunited in North America, in the town of New York.

Nils is drafted in the 5th of June draft in 1917, and he is sent over to France in April 1918. Articles in Swedish-American newspapers tells the story about Nils, that he went over as a private, but quite soon showed some skills in leadership, and was sent to an officer course in France, and became 2nd Lt in the 4th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Division, American Expeditionary Forces.

He was appointed to 2nd Lt in October 1st, 1918, quite fast progression, for a reason not known.

Nils was fighting in the Meuse Argonne Offensive when he was killed in action october 31st, 1918. His name is found in the Missing in Action tablet in Meuse Argonne American Cemetery, in France. The two newpaper articles is in Swedish, but I have made a short summary in this post.

It is very interesting to find the story about Nils, when reading the old digitised newspapers, which tells the story about about a young Swede who lived in New York, after have emigrated in quite young age, and how he worked as a private driver to a leader in the paper industry in New York, Alvah Miller.

We now know that he in in 1917 became connected to the Army, and later on went over to France.

The interesting with this result in my research is that I did not find Nils through the normal casualty cards from AEF, but from the cards in the New York archive with abstracts from WW1.

That leads me into thoughts that it may be more soldiers that doesn’t have a casualty card, but anyway became killed on the battlefield, which may mean that there are more Swedes to find? The future will tell.

Nils is now #401 in my research and within my criterias over Swedes who fell at the Western Front in the Great War. Maybe one day Nils will be found, and maybe he will get his own headstone. May Nils rest in peace.

400.

Let’s stop and reflect for a while.

It is a special feeling to actually find and track down, in my research, within my criterias, Swedish born soldier number 400. I remember when I found number 100, and felt that, wow … 100, for me, unknown Swedish born soldiers who had died at the Western Front and are buried there. Amazing, I thought then.

Then I was grabbed by the constant drive to see if it were more of those, who left the mother country, for different reasons, and went over to their new country, a new life, an unknown life, who either went well, or became totally different.

I am so in to this. My feeling for those individuals are just growing stronger and stronger for every day. They are my precious in a way, hard to describe. Call me mad, but when looking into their eyes, I almost can here them talk to me. The Swedish people have to know, a lot of our sons at that time grabbed a weapon for a nation quite new to them, to fight the enemy, and to give their life on the battlefield. For that, in my eyes, they are worth all respect.

So, number 400. Who is he? We talk about Otto Erhard Peterson, born in Gislövs läge in Trelleborg on the most southern coast of Sweden in Skåne county.

When looking into the Swedish church books you will find him with different names, and the name which is registered in the book is actually Otto Eihard, not the most common names i Sweden at that time. He is also called Otto Richard, but Otto Erhard is also mentioned, and that is also with that name he is registered in the American Expeditionary Forces.

Otto Erhard is born March 10th, 1895, and raised by his parents Cecilia Eriksson and Peter Olsson. He has probably his surname Pettersson after his father, Peter.

He is one of three kids in the family. It is not known what made him emigrate to North America in June 13th, 1913. He arrived in Jamestown, Virginia July 4th, 1913, and departed from Malmö in Sweden, quite near from his home.

When finding other documents in different archives, it is not easy for those who is reading and writing his home address. We find “Frelleburg, Galorlage, Sweden”, “Gislous Lage Trallshorg”, and it is actually Gislövs Läge, Trelleborg.

He was drafted in the 5th of June draft, 1917. He left on the ship Mauretania from New York, July 30th, 1918. Otto belonged to 109th Infantry Regiment, the Machine Gun battalion, in the 28th Division, in the American Expeditionary Forces. Otto was killed not long after he arrived to the battlefield. He fell just on the start of the Meuse Argonne offensive, in the capture of Varennes, September 26th, 1918, where he was killed in action.

I so wonder what he felt in these moments …

He was buried in the Forest de Boureuilles, Farm de Rochamp, in Argonne, France, and he was later moved to the Meuse Argonne American Cemetery in November 21, 1920, where he has his stone today. Otto Erhard fell at an age of only 23. May Otto Erhard Peterson rest in peace.

I made a reflection last weekend, when I was over on a very interesting conference hosted by the eminent organisation Great War Group, and was able to listen to very professional individiuals who told me a lot about different historical moments, and I felt like “I must develop my own research in one or another direction, or must I do that?”

I have realised, that for many countries, who participated as a nation in the Great War, the question about that their people participated in the war is obvious. I can imagine that it is other aspects that is more natural to talk about when talking about the Great War, such as leadership, tactics, leaders and other subjects, to develop it in different directions.

I felt that I have to do that as well, but stopped for a minute in my thoughts. Do I have to do that? No, not yet.

I have realised that for us in Sweden we must first understand that it actually were Swedish born soldiers who participated in the War, even it we did not participate as a country. The other aspects in the research will come later on.

We protected ourselves, as our neighbours Denmark and Norway, and as a country we still were afraid for the large old enemy in the east, which in these times had their border right next to us. I dont blame my country for that.

So, I will continue to tell, everyone who wants to know, the history of the Swedish individuals who took their new friends from America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, France, Great Britain and Germany in the hands and joined them in the fight at that time.

That will be my mission. There will be plenty of time to develop this at a later stage, I am pretty sure about that. So please join me on my quest. I hope you will find it interesting.

It has just started.

A bit off the main topic – Swedes in the American Civil war.

It is quite easy, when searching about Swedes who fought and fell at the Western Front in The Great War, to also come across other facts in history. In this case I today came across some stories about Swedes who was involved in some fightings during the American Civil war.

It is earlier mentioned by the famous Swedish author, Lars Gyllenhaal, and his cowriter Lennart Westerberg, in their book about “Swedes in War” (Svenskar i Krig), that they assess that about 3500 Swedish born individuals who had emigrated from Sweden to the America fought for the union, and that about a couple of hundred Swedish born fought for the other side, the southern.

Earlier this evening, when searching for facts about another soldier, who fell at the Western Front, I came across some facts from another book, “Swedes in Illinois – historical notes” by the Swede John Ericson from New York.

A small story mention how a battery in the union, named and commanded by the Captain Silfversparre, who participated in the fightings around Shiloh, for a couple of days. Later on Captain Silfversparre left the unit for several reason, but there were no doubts that he did a great job commanding the battery.

The fight went on, and they fought nearby the cities of Corinth and Vicksburg, and later on Jackson, Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountains. In 1864 theyt also fought in Resacka, Kingston, Dallas, Altoona and Kenesaw Moutains.

In the fightings June 22nd 1864, around Atlanta, the battery with their new commander did a great job for the union troops. But they also lost a Swedish born sergeant named Peter S Wyman.

Peter was the commander of one of the units cannons, no 2, and they formed up in a half circle againts a five time larger unit, and therefor the commander ordered a retreat, but the commander of the battery, De Graas, and Peter, stayed by their weapon just to give the enemy their last loaded bullets, but Peter was not satisfied and reloaded one of the cannons, shot it at the enemy, spiked the gun and turned around to run back, but in that moment he was hit by three bullets and died on the spot.

If he just had lived for another day, he would have been promoted. The text says he is buried in an unmarked spot in the area where he fell. May he rest in peace.

Peter was born in Sweden , and it is stated in the text I found that he was born in 1836 in the parish of Ysanna, Blekinge, Sweden, but I assume it is the parish Ysane today.

It is also mentioned that his surname was Yman, and then logically became Wyman in the states, but I can’t, for the moment, find anyone called Yman in Sweden, and probably it was another name, and he took the surname Wyman when he arrived to the states, maybe after his home in Ysane?

I will look further to see if I can find the person behind the name Peter S Wyman, I will come back.

Source: History of the Swedes of Illinois.

Guessing as a part of research

When you are stuck sometimes in your research, and you feel that you have tested everything with the facts that you have, but it doesnt lead you forward, that is so frustrating.

That was the case in my latest find in trying to confirm a soldier that I found in a American National Archive. I have saved this casualty card for a while, as I by those moments did not find any facts that really confirmed that he was born in Sweden, and I gave up many times.

So, last evening, I just guessed about his real name, and it turned out to be the solution, that finally revealed everything. Strange but nice!

The card of the American soldier named Fritz Erickson, Killed in Action October 1st, 1918, fighting for 111th Regiment, 28th AEF Division. It can be read on the card that he previous was reported to have died of wounds received in action November 11, 1918, but was later changed. He was earlier also stated as missing in action.

The card says that his mother is Maria Ivanson from Lilla Ryd, Holje, Sweden. So that gives me a hint that Fritz actually can be born in Sweden. At the backside of the card it says that Maria probably has the Surname of Svenson. That is a lead in some way.

When searching at ancestry I get some results that says that Fritz was born July 14, 1892, in Sweden, in the village of Holjo, and that he was killed November 11th. But we know the date is wrong and changed to October 1st, 1918. There is no village called Holjo, and I am trying other variants like Höljö, Håljo, Holjö etc, but no luck.

I find Lilla Ryd, but there are many small places in Sweden called Lilla Ryd, as it means small cultivated field, or small open Fields so you can imagine … There is no place called Lilla Ryd near anything that could be Holjo.

I am searching for Maria – Lilla Ryd – with Fritz, but no results …

On ancestry it says that he is born in Höljes, Norway, october 1st, 1918, so I think maybe he is not a Swede after all … ?

But I know there is nothing called Lilla Ryd in Norway, Lilla Ryd is a common Swedish expression, and I think that it is like the most common situation, that the parents often stayed at home or nearby, where the kids were born, especially for those soldiers who emigrated alone, or without parents.

So what to do? Maybe Fritz has another name? What could it then be? And here comes my guess. Maybe Fritz is the old Swedish name Fritiof?

Bang on! I search for Fritiof, born July 14th, 1892, and there he is. There is also a Maria Svenson, his mother , and also a father called Erik Svensson. Erickson comes from his fathers name, and Fritiof is Eriks son, Eriksson. And what about Lilla Ryd? It is not Lilla Ryd, it is Ry Lilla …

So finally I can say that it is highly likely that this is the correct individual. In the church book I can also read that Fritiof left Sweden in 1912, for North America, in the age of 20. The conscript age at that time in Sweden was 21, so many, many Swedes left just before, to not risk to be called in for duty in the Swedish army.

Fritiof called himself Fritz E according to the casualty card, but the E is taken away for some reason, and Fritiof also have the name Erik which explains the E, probably from his father.

Fritiof was registered in June 5th, 1917, and left for France with 40th Division in August 11, 1918. Fritiof were later on heavily involved in the Meuse Argonne Offensive with 28th Division, especially between September 26 to October 9, which is the period in which Fritiof payed the ultimate price at the battlefield. Fritiof is buried at Meuse Argonne American cemetery in France. May he rest in Peace.